Bosnia and Herzegovina.
countryaah, Bosnia and Herzegovina formally
applied for membership in the EU in February. The
application was supported by the dominant parties in the
nation and in the Bosnian-Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, but not by those in the Serbian Republic. In
September, the EU approved the application and would then
decide whether the country met the criteria to become an
official candidate country. The road to membership was
expected to be long, given the fragile state formation and
the great contradictions between the two main parts of the
In March, the verdict came against Radovan Karadžić, who
was Bosnian Serb president in 1992-96, in the International
Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague.
Karadžić was convicted on ten of eleven charges, including
for genocide in connection with the 1995 massacre in
Srebrenica, and sentenced to 40 years in prison. Karadžić
was arrested in Belgrade in 2008 and had already been
detained for eight years.
A disputed referendum was held in the Serbian Republic in
September, where over 99% of voters voted to make January 9
an official Bosnian Serb national day. The vote was held
even though the Constitutional Court ruled that it violated
the Constitution. Both the US and the EU expressed strong
opposition and Serbia did not support the initiative.
Bosnian critics claimed that the referendum was an exercise
in the face of a vote on independence for the Bosnian Serb
region. The Bosnian Serbs proclaimed their own state in what
was then Yugoslavia on January 9, 1992, during the run-up to
the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
When the results of a census carried out in 2013 were
published in July, it turned out that the population of the
country has decreased by one-fifth - or 824,000 residents -
since 1991, the year before the outbreak of war when a
census was made in what was then Yugoslavia. The result
caused yet another conflict in the country: the Bosnian Serb
government refused to recognize the result, claiming that
around 200,000 Bosnians actually lived abroad. The official
result showed that just over half of the 3.5 million
residents were Bosnians. In the Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, over 70% were Bosnians, while over 81% of the
residents of the Serbian Republic were ethnic Serbs.