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Europe

Europe is the second smallest continent and the western part of the Eurasian land mass. Ethnically and politically, Europe is divided into a large number of peoples and states. See all countries on Abbreviationfinder.

Geography

The area of ​​Europe is 10 532 000 km². The continent is surrounded by the Atlantic and its neighboring seas. It is located entirely in the northern hemisphere. The border with Asia runs at the east foot of the Urals and the Mugodsharen via Emba, the north coast of the Caspian Sea and the Kuma-Manytsch valley to the Sea of ​​Azov and on its east coast to the Kerch Strait, through the Black Sea, the Bosphorus and the Sea of ​​Marmara and the dardanelles. There are numerous peninsulas (Scandinavia, Italy , Iberian Peninsula, Balkan Peninsula) and islands (Britain, Ireland , Sicily).

2016 EuropeThe geological areas stretch across the continent in a west-east direction: mountains in Scotland and Scandinavia; lowlands from northern France to Russia; from the Cantabrian Mountains in Spain to the Balkans, individual high mountain ranges (Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians); in southern Europe, low mountain ranges with large basins in river lowlands. Europe is riddled with numerous rivers. The largest are Volga, Dnieper, Danube, Rhine and Rhône.

Climate

Europe is mainly in the temperate climate zone, the north is part of the subpolar, the south of the subtropical zone. Central Europe is a transition area to the continental climate area, in which dry continental air masses can bring dry-cold weather in winter and dry-hot weather in summer. Eastern and Northern Europe have a continental climate, whereby under the influence of the Asian high pressure area, the winters are colder and the summers are warmer than in Western Europe. In southern Europe there is largely a Mediterranean climate with trade winds in summer and winter rain. The high mountains of Europe form effective barriers to rain clouds. They are important climate and water divisions. For example, the Alps separate the Mediterranean climate of Southern Europe from the continental Central Europe.

Vegetation

To the north, Iceland stretches across the Scandinavian Mountains and further east to an ever expanding coastline of treeless tundra, to the south of which is a transition zone made up of loose tree and shrub vegetation. It merges into the large coniferous forest belt that almost all of Scandinavia, Finland and the north of Russia (taiga). Coniferous forests still dominate in the higher regions of the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. To the south and in the lower mountainous areas there is an already heavily cleared mixed forest zone, which finally changes into a deciduous forest zone that has become very patchy. In southern Eastern Europe, the steppe area on the Black Sea goes east to the Caspian Sea in salt and desert steppes. The Mediterranean flora region includes the coastal areas and islands of the Mediterranean Sea and the southern Crimea, where, after the early destruction of large forest areas, hardwood and macchia (evergreen shrubbery) predominate today. An alpine flora covers the sun-drenched areas and slopes of the high mountain regions above the tree line.

The tundra is inhabited by reindeer, arctic fox, wolverine, lemming and numerous rodent and bird species. Elk, deer, roe deer, wild boar, fox, badger, marten, polecat, rodents, songbirds and birds of prey are typical of the forest zone. Larger predators such as bear, wolf and lynx have become very rare: chamois, ibex, marmot, golden eagle and lamb vulture live in the high mountain regions.

Population

Europe is relatively densely populated with 730 million people. The much larger continent of Africa has only a slightly larger population. The predominant religion is Christianity with its various denominations (Protestantism, Catholic Church, Orthodox Church). The European language families (Slavic, Germanic and Romance languages) are so-called Indo-European languages. Exceptions are the Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian languages, which do not belong to Indo-European (Finno-Ugric languages) and the Basque language.

Countries in Europe
  1. Aland
  2. Albania
  3. Andorra
  4. Austria
  5. Belarus
  6. Belgium
  7. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  8. Bulgaria
  9. Croatia
  10. Czech Republic
  11. Denmark
  12. Estonia
  13. Faroe Islands
  14. Finland
  15. France
  16. Germany
  17. Greece
  18. Hungary
  19. Iceland
  20. Ireland
  21. Italy
  22. Kosovo
  23. Latvia
  24. Liechtenstein
  25. Lithuania
  26. Luxembourg
  27. Malta
  28. Moldova
  29. Monaco
  30. Montenegro
  31. Netherlands
  32. Northern Macedonia
  33. Norway
  34. Poland
  35. Portugal
  36. Romania
  37. Russia
  38. San Marino
  39. Serbia
  40. Slovakia
  41. Slovenia
  42. Spain
  43. Sweden
  44. Switzerland
  45. Ukraine
  46. United Kingdom
  47. Vatican City

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