Zimbabwe. In March, former Vice President Joice Mujuru
first formed the People of Zimbabwe (ZPF). Mujuru is
expected to stand in the 2018 elections. During the year,
92-year-old President Robert Mugabe had no plans to
surrender power, saying that demonstrations similar to those
that fell several governments during the so-called Arab
Spring of 2011 would be ineffective in Zimbabwe.
In April, supporters of the opposition party Movement for
Democratic Change (MDC) were granted a permit to demonstrate
in Harare and more than 2,000 people marched through the
capital without being attacked by the police. However, when
new demonstrations were held in August, 58 people were
arrested and in September the police imposed a two-week
demonstration ban. This ban was enforced by one of the
higher courts in the country, but in October a new decision
came from the same court where the ban was approved. This
lasted until mid-October.
During the year, Pastor Evan Mawarire emerged as a
unifying opposition force with the support of the MDC leader
and former Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai. The pastor
avoided criticizing Mugabe directly and instead encouraged
the people to protest against the high unemployment rate.
Although in July, Mawarire was indicted for encouraging
violence, but during the trial, prosecutors changed the
charge to try to overthrow the government. However, this was
not approved by the judge and Mawarire was released.
countryaah, Mugabe seemed to lose one of its most important power
bases, namely the war veterans. In July, the veteran
association declared that they did not intend to support
Mugabe and his party ZANU-PF in the next election, citing
failed economic policies and the regime's dictatorial
tendencies. War veterans have been one of the driving forces
behind land reform, which began in 2000 and led to the
seizure of at least 4,000 white landowners. In March,
Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa announced that these
people will now receive financial compensation.
In September, the country's central bank announced that
it would start issuing so-called bond dollars in October.
These should be formally equivalent to US dollars and
printed in Zimbabwe. Due to the fact that the domestic
currency has in principle become completely useless, it was
abolished in 2015. Instead, a number of international
currencies, including the US dollar and the South African
rand, have been used as means of payment.
The North American Famine Prevention Organization, FEWSNET
declared in February 2006 that access to basic food among
people in the region had dropped drastically and that a
large number of people were dependent on food assistance.
Acc. FEWSNET had worsened the food situation in Zimbabwe as
a result of the decline in the country's cord production in
In March, the IMF presented its latest analysis of
Zimbabwe's failure to pay to the international financial
institution as well as possible sanctions against the
country. The IMF Executive Board decided to deprive Zimbabwe
of its right to vote in the organization or draw on its
After 7 years of economic decline, inflation reached more
than 1000% in May. The world's highest inflation rate. At
the same time, unemployment reached 70%.
In March 2007, special forces arrested Morgan Tsvangirai.
He was tortured, beaten and released a few days later. On
March 28, special forces stormed the MDC headquarters in
Due. the severe crisis crossed thousands of Zimbabweans
in the August 2007 border - most with the heading to South
Africa. The opposition asked the government to build refugee
camps near the border. The proposal was rejected by the
South African government on the grounds that it would hamper
the integration of refugees into the South African
The March 2008 presidential election was won by Morgan
Tsvangirai who got 47.9% of the vote against Mugabe's 43.2%.
In June, the second round of elections was conducted with
only the two candidates, but shortly before the election,
Tsvangirai withdrew and declared that there was no prospect
of the election being free. Mugabe therefore won the second
round with 85% of the vote. After the first round, ZANU-PF
had launched a hunt for members and sympathizers of
Mugabe's electoral victory was met internationally. White
racists in the US and Europe demanded international
sanctions against Zimbabwe and in July attempted to get the
UN Security Council to adopt sanctions. This move was halted
by veto from Russia and China. Instead, the African Union
tried to get the two main players to form a unifying
government, and after nearly six months of negotiations such
a government was formed with Tsvangirai as prime minister.
The South African Cooperation Council SADC appointed South
African President Thabo Mbeki as a mediator. This
encountered resistance from Tsvangirai. The ANC has
historically had a close relationship with ZANU-PF, because
in the 1980s Zimbabwe allowed the South African resistance
movement to have camps and offices in Zimbabwe.
In September, Mugabe and Tsvangirai signed a
power-sharing agreement. A unifying government was formed
and it was agreed that the MDC should have control over the
police, while the ZANU-PF retained control of the military.
Tsvangirai was deployed as prime minister in February 2009.
The unifying government came to fruition, but not without
problems. ZANU-PF criticized the MDC for not doing enough to
get the EU and US to impose their sanctions and therefore
did not comply with all parts of the cooperation agreement.
At the same time, the party continued to harass members of
the MDC and other opponents. Conversely, the MDC boycotted
periods of government meetings in protest against ZANU-PF's
failure to fulfill the agreements.
However, the unifying government could not immediately
resolve the economic crisis triggered by the failed
agricultural policy and the West's sanctions. In February,
for the fourth time, a money exchange was carried out,
removing 12 zeros from the banknotes. As early as April,
however, the new currency was pulled out of circulation and
replaced with US $. This had an immediate positive impact on
the economy and inflation fell to below 0%. In 2009, for the
first time in 10 years there was economic growth in the
country, and in 2010 and 11 economic growth was 6%. The
country came to an end after 8 years of economic and