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Zimbabwe

Yearbook 2016

2016 ZimbabweZimbabwe. In March, former Vice President Joice Mujuru first formed the People of Zimbabwe (ZPF). Mujuru is expected to stand in the 2018 elections. During the year, 92-year-old President Robert Mugabe had no plans to surrender power, saying that demonstrations similar to those that fell several governments during the so-called Arab Spring of 2011 would be ineffective in Zimbabwe.

In April, supporters of the opposition party Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) were granted a permit to demonstrate in Harare and more than 2,000 people marched through the capital without being attacked by the police. However, when new demonstrations were held in August, 58 people were arrested and in September the police imposed a two-week demonstration ban. This ban was enforced by one of the higher courts in the country, but in October a new decision came from the same court where the ban was approved. This lasted until mid-October.

During the year, Pastor Evan Mawarire emerged as a unifying opposition force with the support of the MDC leader and former Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai. The pastor avoided criticizing Mugabe directly and instead encouraged the people to protest against the high unemployment rate. Although in July, Mawarire was indicted for encouraging violence, but during the trial, prosecutors changed the charge to try to overthrow the government. However, this was not approved by the judge and Mawarire was released.

According to countryaah, Mugabe seemed to lose one of its most important power bases, namely the war veterans. In July, the veteran association declared that they did not intend to support Mugabe and his party ZANU-PF in the next election, citing failed economic policies and the regime's dictatorial tendencies. War veterans have been one of the driving forces behind land reform, which began in 2000 and led to the seizure of at least 4,000 white landowners. In March, Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa announced that these people will now receive financial compensation.

In September, the country's central bank announced that it would start issuing so-called bond dollars in October. These should be formally equivalent to US dollars and printed in Zimbabwe. Due to the fact that the domestic currency has in principle become completely useless, it was abolished in 2015. Instead, a number of international currencies, including the US dollar and the South African rand, have been used as means of payment.

2016 Zimbabwe

The North American Famine Prevention Organization, FEWSNET declared in February 2006 that access to basic food among people in the region had dropped drastically and that a large number of people were dependent on food assistance. Acc. FEWSNET had worsened the food situation in Zimbabwe as a result of the decline in the country's cord production in 2005.

In March, the IMF presented its latest analysis of Zimbabwe's failure to pay to the international financial institution as well as possible sanctions against the country. The IMF Executive Board decided to deprive Zimbabwe of its right to vote in the organization or draw on its reserve funds.

After 7 years of economic decline, inflation reached more than 1000% in May. The world's highest inflation rate. At the same time, unemployment reached 70%.

In March 2007, special forces arrested Morgan Tsvangirai. He was tortured, beaten and released a few days later. On March 28, special forces stormed the MDC headquarters in Harare.

Due. the severe crisis crossed thousands of Zimbabweans in the August 2007 border - most with the heading to South Africa. The opposition asked the government to build refugee camps near the border. The proposal was rejected by the South African government on the grounds that it would hamper the integration of refugees into the South African community.

The March 2008 presidential election was won by Morgan Tsvangirai who got 47.9% of the vote against Mugabe's 43.2%. In June, the second round of elections was conducted with only the two candidates, but shortly before the election, Tsvangirai withdrew and declared that there was no prospect of the election being free. Mugabe therefore won the second round with 85% of the vote. After the first round, ZANU-PF had launched a hunt for members and sympathizers of Tsvangirai's MDC.

Mugabe's electoral victory was met internationally. White racists in the US and Europe demanded international sanctions against Zimbabwe and in July attempted to get the UN Security Council to adopt sanctions. This move was halted by veto from Russia and China. Instead, the African Union tried to get the two main players to form a unifying government, and after nearly six months of negotiations such a government was formed with Tsvangirai as prime minister. The South African Cooperation Council SADC appointed South African President Thabo Mbeki as a mediator. This encountered resistance from Tsvangirai. The ANC has historically had a close relationship with ZANU-PF, because in the 1980s Zimbabwe allowed the South African resistance movement to have camps and offices in Zimbabwe.

In September, Mugabe and Tsvangirai signed a power-sharing agreement. A unifying government was formed and it was agreed that the MDC should have control over the police, while the ZANU-PF retained control of the military. Tsvangirai was deployed as prime minister in February 2009.

The unifying government came to fruition, but not without problems. ZANU-PF criticized the MDC for not doing enough to get the EU and US to impose their sanctions and therefore did not comply with all parts of the cooperation agreement. At the same time, the party continued to harass members of the MDC and other opponents. Conversely, the MDC boycotted periods of government meetings in protest against ZANU-PF's failure to fulfill the agreements.

However, the unifying government could not immediately resolve the economic crisis triggered by the failed agricultural policy and the West's sanctions. In February, for the fourth time, a money exchange was carried out, removing 12 zeros from the banknotes. As early as April, however, the new currency was pulled out of circulation and replaced with US $. This had an immediate positive impact on the economy and inflation fell to below 0%. In 2009, for the first time in 10 years there was economic growth in the country, and in 2010 and 11 economic growth was 6%. The country came to an end after 8 years of economic and political turbulence.

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